Nasar (1989) examined the connotative meaning that laypersons infer from various home styles, how those meanings change with regard to sociodemographic and location variables, and whether architects understand or have knowledge of these cognitions. A diverse sample in Columbus and in Los Angeles rated six styles of homes in terms of desirability, and the friendliness and status of assumed residents.
Laypersons in both cities displayed remarkably similar patterns of response. Both groups rated Farm and Tudor as most desirable, Mediterranean and Saltbox and least desirable, Farm as most friendly, Colonial as unfriendly, Colonial and Tudor as highest in status, and Saltbox and Mediterranean as lowest in status.
Nasar, J. L. (1989). Symbolic meanings of house styles. Environment and Behavior, 21: 235-257.